Invitations for further engagement with chapter ideas
- The chapter begins with a vignette of Lakshmi and her colleagues, which demonstrates fluidity of language use. There is a mixture of languages used in both how the team communicated and the artifacts produced from their interactions. The vignette is an illustration of translanguaging in action. Locate federal and state legislation and regulation impacting your school district. Does it support a monolingual approach or a translanguaging approach to language use and language learning? Give three to four examples supporting your claim.
- The federal Bilingual Education Act of 1968 was passed overwhelmingly by a bipartisan majority in Congress. This Act was to provide federal grants and assistance to school districts who wished to develop bilingual education programs. In 1974 amendments to the Act established greater support and funding to develop curricula, staff, and research. What changes occurred in the United States that would account for the changes in policy that have led to the monolingual education system in place today?
- The Secretary of Education William J. Bennett during the Reagan Administration stated in his speech on September 26, 1985 arguing against the Bilingual Education Act to the Association for a Better New York: "The responsibility of the federal government must be to help ensure that local schools succeed in teaching non-English-speaking students English, so that every American enjoys access to the opportunities of American society.” What assumptions was the Secretary making? Explain how those assumptions relate to modern expectations for global communication and global economies.
- In this chapter, we explore the idea of general linguistic performance skills, which are used to express complex thoughts. What would this look like for Emergent Bilinguals in a monolingual setting versus a translanguaging setting?
- Can technology help break the hierarchy of language? Take a look at the Edutopia lesson plan: Using Twitter in World Language Classes. How can similar lessons be used to promote a translanguaging mindset in the classroom?
- After reading the blog post Language, Identity, Culture, and Diversity by Connor P Williams, consider how the monolingual mindset may reduce the “number of perspectives we have for viewing the world.” How could this be perceived by EBs? How could this impact students on a social, emotional, and economic level?
resources for further Reading/ viewing
- Crawford, J. (1987, April 1). Bilingual Education Traces Its U.S. Roots to the Colonial Era - Education Week. Education Week. Retrieved from https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1987/04/01/27early.h06.html
- Colorín, Colorado: Language Policy: History and Contemporary Views. Featured Articles:
- Garcia, O. (2009). Reimagining Bilingualism in Education for the 21st century. NALDIC, 4–11
In this video from CUNY-NYSIEB, Ofelia García defines and briefly explains translanguaging.
Talk of Ofelia García on the subject of Translanguaging during the Multilingualism & Diversity Lectures 2017